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  • 你是怎么理解甲醛的了?
  • 本站编辑:杭州勤谦环保科技有限公司发布日期:2018-05-19 22:41 浏览次数:

寒冷的冬天,雾霾频频来袭,越来越多的人选择在待在室内。但有没有想过,室内的空气污染可能比窗外的雾霾还要可怕。

In the cold winter, haze strikes frequently, and more and more people choose to stay indoors. But has it ever been thought that indoor air pollution may be even more terrible than the fog and haze outside the window.

让我们耳熟能详的室内装修有害物质如甲醛、苯、氨等的超标是造成室内空气污染的重要原因,严重威胁着人类的健康。其中,甲醛,高居室内空气污染几大元凶之首。

Our familiar indoor decoration harmful substances, such as formaldehyde, benzene and ammonia, are the important causes of indoor air pollution, which seriously threatens the health of human beings. Formaldehyde is the top culprit in indoor air pollution.

那我们就来仔细说说这个制霸室内污染的王者——甲醛。

Then let's talk about the king of indoor pollution, formaldehyde.

甲醛是什么?

What is formaldehyde?

甲醛没有颜色,但具有刺鼻的气味,在室温下极易挥发,四处流窜能力不俗。而被大家所熟知的用来浸泡生物标本的福尔马林,就是甲醛溶液。

Formaldehyde has no color, but has a pungent odor. It is highly volatile at room temperature, and it can travel everywhere. The formalin used to soak up biological specimens is known as Formaldehyde Solution.

甲醛到底有多毒?

How poisonous is formaldehyde in the end?

除了对肝肾功能的损坏,甲醛的致癌性也是毋庸置疑的。世界卫生组织(WHO)认定甲醛为致癌及致畸物质,甲醛在我国有毒化学品优先控制名单上,位列第二。

In addition to the damage of liver and kidney function, the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde is also beyond doubt. WHO (WHO) identified formaldehyde as carcinogenic and teratogenic substances, and formaldehyde ranked second in China's list of priority control of toxic chemicals.

据美国疾控中心资料显示,虽然甲醛具体导致恶性肿瘤的剂量目前还没有明确的科学研究数据,但是如果长期接触甲醛,即使是较低的剂量,罹患癌症的几率就会大幅上涨。而且,甲醛对于孩子、孕妇以及老年人的这种影响则会更大。

According to the CDC, although there is no clear scientific research data on the dosage of formaldehyde that causes malignant tumors at present, the risk of cancer will rise significantly if it is exposed to formaldehyde for a long time, even at a lower dose. Moreover, formaldehyde has greater impact on children, pregnant women and the elderly.

甲醛潜伏在我们身边哪些地方?

Where are formaldehyde lurking around us?

因为价格低廉,甲醛被广泛应用于工业,导致我们生活中含有甲醛的物件也不算太少。首当其冲的装潢材料和家具成为了室内甲醛污染的主要来源,特别是新装修的房子和买的新家具,甲醛含量确实是比较高的。同时,我们平时比较常见的一些工业制品比如防腐剂、地毯、油漆、腌制品等,也都含有甲醛。其实,很多相关行业的从业者也会有暴露于甲醛的潜在风险,最可能暴露于甲醛的是以甲醛为原料的制造产业,工人们不仅身处高浓度甲醛的空气中,皮肤更是会接触到液态甲醛。除此之外,还有一些可以接触到甲醛的行当,比如入殓师、医护人员、研究室里制作标本的教师和学生、服装业或家具厂工人。

Because the price is low, formaldehyde is widely used in industry, resulting in our lives contain formaldehyde objects are not too few. The most important decoration materials and furniture have become the main source of indoor formaldehyde pollution, especially the newly decorated houses and new furniture, and the content of formaldehyde is really high. At the same time, we usually have some common industrial products, such as preservatives, carpets, paint, pickles and so on, which also contain formaldehyde. In fact, many practitioners in related industries also have the potential risk of exposure to formaldehyde. The most likely exposure to formaldehyde is a manufacturing industry with formaldehyde as raw material. Workers are not only in the air of high formaldehyde concentration, but also the skin will be exposed to liquid formaldehyde. In addition, there are some forms of formaldehyde that can be used, such as the undertaker, the medical staff, the teachers and students who make specimens in the study room, the clothing industry or the furniture factory workers.

甲醛怎么进入我们的身体?

How does formaldehyde get into our body?

1. 呼吸道的吸入

Inhalation of the 1. respiratory tract

吸入含有甲醛的空气时,大部分甲醛会被呼吸道的细胞分解并被呼出体外,然而当甲醛浓度很高时,便会通过呼吸道进入血液。

When inhaling air containing formaldehyde, most of the formaldehyde is decomposed by the cells of the respiratory tract and exhaled out of the body. However, when the concentration of formaldehyde is high, it enters the blood through the respiratory tract.

2. 消化道的摄入

2. intake of digestive tract

食物或水中的甲醛会迅速通过消化道进入体内。

Formaldehyde in food or water can rapidly enter the body through the digestive tract.

3. 皮肤接触

3. skin contact

接触到液态甲醛时,少量甲醛会通过皮肤渗透。

When exposed to liquid formaldehyde, a small amount of formaldehyde penetrated through the skin.

甲醛猖狂,我们怎么躲?

Formaldehyde is rampant, how do we hide?

1. 禁烟

1. smoking ban

不管是什么牌子的烟草,都含有甲醛。只有戒烟,才能杜绝这一部分甲醛的伤害。而且这种伤害并不是单纯针对吸烟者,在室内吸烟时,也让同处一室的人们饱受着甲醛污染之苦。

No matter what brand of tobacco, it contains formaldehyde. Only smoking cessation can eliminate this part of formaldehyde damage. And this kind of injury is not just for smokers. When they smoke indoors, people in the same room are suffering from formaldehyde pollution.

2. 保持房屋通风

2. keep the ventilation of the house

室内的建筑材料、家具向空气中释放甲醛。多通风就可降低甲醛含量,家中尽量少用压制木材。甲醛含量高时,多开窗或用排气扇使房屋空气流通,这是一种极为简单有效的办法。然而,通风不是万能甲醛的释放周期较长,一般要三年到十五年,因此,试图通风几个月就想完全消除室内甲醛污染是不现实的,这就要求我们在选择装修装饰材料的时候莫贪便宜,选择正规厂商,尽量降低室内甲醛的浓度,一旦检测室内甲醛的浓度低于国家规定的 0.08 mg / m³ 时,便可以放心入住了。

Indoor building materials and furniture release formaldehyde into the air.  More ventilation can reduce formaldehyde content, and try to use less wood at home. When formaldehyde content is high, it is a very simple and effective way to open windows or use exhaust fans to make the houses circulate.  However, ventilation is not an omnipotent formaldehyde release cycle longer, generally three to fifteen years, so it is unrealistic to try to completely eliminate indoor formaldehyde pollution for a few months, which requires us to choose the decoration materials when we choose the cheap, choose the regular factory, as far as possible to reduce the indoor formaldehyde concentration, Once the concentration of formaldehyde in the testing room is lower than the 0.08 mg / m of the state, it can be admitted safely.

3. 新衣服要过水

3. new clothes are going to pass water

一些免烫面料会散发甲醛,而甲醛却极易溶于水,穿新衣服前先清洗一遍就可以降低免烫面料的甲醛释放,去除残留在衣物中的大部分甲醛,从而降低甲醛暴露的风险。

Some non ironing fabrics will send out formaldehyde, while formaldehyde is very easy to dissolve in water. It can reduce the release of formaldehyde in the fabric before wearing new clothes, and remove most of the formaldehyde in the clothes, thus reducing the risk of formaldehyde exposure.

由此看来甲醛的危害是无处不在也是不容忽视的,所以除了要想办法尽量躲避高浓度甲醛以外,选择正规的方法及渠道去除甲醛也同样是很重要的。

Therefore, it seems that the harm of formaldehyde is everywhere and can not be ignored, so in addition to trying to avoid the high concentration of formaldehyde, it is also important to choose formal methods and channels to remove formaldehyde.

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